Drilling is an economical way of removing large amounts of ceramic to create semi-precision round hole or cavity. Drilling allows a person to make holes through boards, metals, ceramics and other materials.
Grinding is an operation in which the cutting is done by the use of abrasive particles. Grinding processes remove very small chips in very large numbers by cutting the action of many small individual abrasive grains.
Milling is an operation in which ceramic or other material is removed by applying power to a rotation cutter. In vertical milling, the cutting tool is mounted vertically on the spindle. In horizontal milling, the cutting tool is mounted horizontally, either directly on the spindle or on an arbor.
Polishing is an operation that creates flat surfaces. The work piece is reciprocrated in a linear motion against one or more single-point tools. Also used to create contours or irregular configurations.
Tapping is the process of cutting a thread inside a hole so that a cap screw or bolt can be threaded into the hole. Also, it is used to make threads on nuts. Tapping is done with a tool called a "tap".
Turning is a lathe operation in which the cutting tool removes ceramic from the outside diameter of a workpiece. A single point tool is used for turning.